Isnin, 5 Oktober 2009


The traditional 'shadow pay' thearte is perfomed by casting animated puppet shadows on white cloth screen. Puppet characters and stories were usuallty taken from ancient indian epics.... The figures used are artistically made sticks. One person, a Tok Dalang or master storyteller usuallt conducts the whole show from behind the screen as he recites the tale with appropriate sounds and movement. A Tok Dalang is assited by a group aof musician playing the traditional musical instrument such as Rebab, Serunai, Gedombak, Geduk, Canang, kisi and Tetawak. Each shadow plays performence ususally lasts for two to three hours.


AN indoor game of two plyers, congkakk is played on a board with two rows of seven each end is the larger hole known as 'rumah' or home. Played by turns, the objective of the game is to be the first to fill up the player's rumah with as many tokens as possible from the seven holes.


•The Kelantan’s history started between 8000-3000 B.C. Chinese historical documents chronicle the existence of a government which maintained links with China. It’s also subsequently referred to HO-Lo-Ian.
•Yet, it’s also has a long and turbulent history. Between the 16th and 18th century it was under the influence of Pattani before it came under British Colonial and finally becoming a part of Federation of Malaya in 1957 and later Malaysia in 1963.

•Kelantan is the north-most state of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It has an area of 14931 square kilometers. The state is stepped in tradition and culture. Here u may witness the traditional sport of giant kite-flying, top spinning, silat, wayang kulit, bird singing competition and the making of exquisite handicraft such as songket, batik, silverware and mengkuang products. Kelantan is still covered by vast stretches of tropical forest with highest waterfall in south East Asia named Stong waterfall. Its southeastern corner of the state forms part of the National Park. A part from the culture and tropical forest, the state is also popular with the white sandy beaches such as Seven Lagoon Beach, Moon Light Beach, Sabak Beach and also Melawi Beach besides other interesting places such as Reclining Buddha, Dragon Temple and two free duty areas at border of Thailand. As the north-most state of Malaysia, it became a first place landed by Japanese army during invasion of Malaya on 1941 and being colonized by Japan for 8 years. Left this state with thousand experience and historical building.
•The Kelantanese are deeply religious and traditionalist. Be respectful of their feeling and avoid offensive behavior, particularly in manner of dressing and public displays of affection between the sexes. Its has population of approximately 1.4 million, 95% of whom are Malays. The rest is made up of Chinese, Indian, Siamese and other. The economy is based mostly on agriculture, fishing cottage industries and tourism.
•Kelantanese culinary style is distinct from other regions in Malaysia, with its tendency towards creamy sweetish tastes. Popular dishes to try are Nasi Kerabu [herbal rice], ayam percik, [grilled chicken with sweetish creamy coconut sauce],nasi dagang [rice with tuna fish curry] and sweets exotically named jala mas [golden net], puteri mandi [the bathing princess] and cek mek molek [pretty maiden]. The best place to try out Kelantanese food inexpensively is the night market at Padang Garong in Kota Bharu.


Workshop at marketstreet , Georgetown

learned how to make signboards from his father Mr. Kok Ying Chow.The father migrated from Guangdong, China and apprenticed a mastercraftsman in Penang at the age of 14.
After the 2nd World War upon the master’s retirement, he took on the business.The son, Mr Kok Ah Wah, took over the business after the father passed away, thus keeping the business within the family for 70 years.Now, over 62 years old and with 7 children, Mr Kok Ah Wah may sadly be the last of his generation to continue this family trade.
It takes him between 1-3 weeks to finish making a signboard. Besides servicing locals, Mr Kok also exports occasionally to foreign countries.

Signboards framed above front doors as practiced in China, have similar relevance for the migrant Chinese that settled in Penang. In Chinese geomancy, the front entrance is a significant passage that blesses the comings and goings of the residents and their guests.
Generally, the carved wooden signboards served two distinct purposes, residential and commercial.

Mr Kok Ah Wah at work

The new arrivals would have their district or origin in China carved in Chinese characters, usually set against black paint.This would immediately identify the families diatect groups and clan names.Far from home, such details served to assert their identity and maintain close cultural ties with their motherland, usually, a smaller rectangular sign was placed below this main sign.This was often inscribed with positive affirmation of blessings upon entering and leaving.

As for commercial business, they too hung signboards to proudly exhibit their trade name. a joint venture was identified by the characters “Hup Kee”. Sometimes, signboards were presented to traders when they first began business. These congratulatory offerings also indicated positive affirmation for a prosperous business.

The difference between Mr Kok Wah’s handcrafted signboards and the machine-crafted signboards is the texture and the depth of the carving achieved by using different chisel heads. Here are 3 techniques which Mr Kok has perfected.

In the old days, signboard craftsmen were known to have used a set of 64 chisels. Mr Kok currently uses only half a dozen different chisels. Most signboard makers now use a machine to engrave signboards.

The materials & tools: 1.softwood 2.carving tools 3.mixture of putty & Thinner 4.paints

Step 1:
Prepare an ideal size of softwood.Smoothen the surface with sandpaper
Step 2:
Paint a layer of putty on the wood.
Step 3:
Prepare the characters(Letters) on a piece of paper, using carbon paper, trace it on to the wood.
Step 4:
Place carving tool at 45º in the center of a character and knock gently with a hammer to remove shavings.
Step 5:
Shave out the shape of the letter, leaving a margin of 1mm between the indented space and the tracing line
Step 6:
Using a smaller U-shaped carving tool, cut a slope all along the tracing line.
Step 7:
Brush over the carved space with a mixture of putty and thinner
Step 8:
Use oil paint to paint the flat surface one colour (black) and the carved words another colour (gold or red)

Some items done by Mr kok


Malays are the people who inhabit the Malayan Peninsula and some of the nearby islands, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo and smaller islands that lie between the area. These tribal proto-Malays were a seafaring people. Present day Malays of the Peninsula and coasts of the Malay Archipelago are "anthropologically described as deutero-Malays" and are the descendants of the tribal proto-Malays mixed with modern Indian, Thai, Arab and Chinese ancestry. Malay culture itself has been strongly influenced by that of people of neighboring lands, including Siamese, Javanese, Sumatran and Indians. The influence of Hindu India was historically very great, and the Malay people were largely Hinduized before they were converted to Islam in the 15th century. For 2000 years, the traffic of traders between the Malayan Archipelago and India resulted in frequent intermarriages especially Tamils and Gujeratis. Some Hindu rituals survive in Malay culture, as in the second part of the marriage ceremony and in various ceremonies of State. Malays have also preserved some of their more ancient beliefs in spirits of the soil and jungle, often having recourse to medicine men called bomohs [shamans] for the treatment of ailments.

In the northern states of Perlis and Kedah, intermarriages with Thais were commonplace. The east coast state of Kelantan still has traces of Javanese culture that date back to the era of the Majapahit Empire of the 14th century. The Sumatran kingdom of Acheh dominated Perak for over a century. The Bugis from Indonesia's Celebes Islands colonized Selangor and fought for rulers in States along the length of the peninsula - from Kedah to Johor. The Minangkabaus from Sumatra had their own independent chiefdoms in what is today the state of Negri Sembilan. This mix of different ethnic groups form what is the modern Malay and can be clearly seen in the lineage of, for example, Malacca's royalty. Sultan Muhammad Shah married a Tamil from South India. Sultan Mansur Shah married a Javanese, a Chinese and a Siamese; the Siamese wife bore two future Sultans of Pahang. It was this diversity of races, cultures and influences that has the given the modern Malay race the rich and unique historical heritage it has today.

This rich historical heritage has evidently resulted in it's exotic cuisine. In Malay cuisine fresh aromatic herbs and roots are used, some familiar, such as lemongrass, ginger, garlic, shallots, kaffir limes and fresh chilies. Both fresh and dried chilies are used, usually ground into a sambal or chili paste to add hotness to dishes. There are however, less commonly known herbs and roots that are essential in Malay cooking; such as daun kemangi [a type of basil], daun kesum [polygonum, commonly called laksa leaf], bunga kantan [wild ginger flower buds or torch ginger], kunyit basah [turmeric root], lengkuas [galangal] and pandan or pandanus [screwpine leave]. Dried spices frequently used in Malay cooking are jintan manis [fennel], jintan putih [cumin] and ketumbar [coriander]; Other dried spices used are cloves, cardamom, star anise, mustard seeds, fenugreek, cinnamon and nutmeg. Both fresh and dried ingredients are frequently used together, usually ground into a rempah ['spice paste]. The rempah is then sautéed in oil to bring out it's flavorful aroma and toasted goodness. Santan [coconut milk] is the basis of Malay lemak dishes. Lemak dishes are typically not hot to taste; it is aromatically spiced and coconut milk is added for a creamy richness [lemak]. Assam Jawa, or tamarind paste is a key element in many Malay assam dishes for adding a sour or tangy taste; especially for fish and seafood dishes. What is tamarind paste? Tamarind paste is the pulp extracted from tamarind pods commonly used as a souring ingredient in Latin America, India, Africa and Asia. While the prime taste is sour, the underlying tang is slightly sweet, reminiscent of dried apricots or dried prunes. The pulp or paste is commonly sold in the form of a semi-dry flat block. To use, simply pinch a small lump from the block and soak it in some warm water. Use your fingers to squish it about in the water to separate the seeds and fibers; the resulting paste or tamarind water is used for cooking.
Many Malay signature dishes require a key ingredient called Belacan [also spelt Belachan, Blacan, Blachan], pronounced blah-chan. Tiny baby shrimp or brine are allowed to ferment, cured with salt, sun-dried and formed into a small brick or cake. Similar to how anchovy paste is used in Italian cooking, belacan is used much the same way, that is, sparingly. Not overly 'fishy', a tiny amount of belacan adds 'sweetness' to meats and intensity to fish & seafood. It adds a 'kick' to vegetable dishes, such as the famed Malaysian dish Kangkong Belacan. Belacan is also the basis of a well-loved Malay condiment - Sambal Belacan. It's made by first roasting a small lump of belacan, which is then pounded with fresh chilies and lime juice is added. This appetizing condiment is almost always present in any typical Malay meal. Belacan also makes a flavorful base for sauces and gravy, adding depth and an intriguing taste that you can't quite decipher. When uncooked, the pressed cake has a powerful scent like "stinky cheese". But don't be put off; it mellows out and harmonizes in the cooking leaving behind an understated richness that simply cannot be reproduced. Best described as all 'natural' flavor enhancer, belacan is what gives many of the foods from Southeast Asia - Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam - that authentic flavor and zest!
As in most countries of Southeast Asia, rice is staple. It is served for lunch, dinner and often breakfast. Originally eaten as a hearty breakfast Nasi Lemak is a meal of rice cooked in santan [coconut milk] served with a side of Sambal Ikan Bilis [dried anchovies cooked in a sambal], cucumber slices, hard boiled egg and peanuts, and traditionally packaged in a fresh banana leaf. Most meals are eaten with fingers and utensils are kept to a minimum. All dishes are served at the same time, usually accompanied by a refreshing drink such as air sirap [rose syrup] or air limau [lime juice]. Seafood such as shrimp or rather prawn [which is the general term commonly used in Malaysia for all types/sizes of this crustacean], squid and fish in particular, are popular in Malay cuisine. Fish caught from local waters such as ikan kembong [chubb or Indian mackerel], ikan tenggiri [wolf herring] and ikan tongkol, also called ikan kayu [tuna], are seasoned very simply with salt, pepper, a sprinkling of turmeric powder and quickly deep fried. Often the fish is stuffed with sambal belacan before frying or grilling. Grilling or barbequing is another favorite way of cooking fish; fish is typically kept whole, seasoned, wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over hot charcoals. Many local Malay hawker stalls specialize in Ikan Panggang [Grilled fish] or Ikan Bakar [Barbecued Fish].

Depending on the main basic 'flavoring' ingredient; Malay dishes can be more or less, distinguished into several 'styles' of cooking: Masak Lemak [coconut], Masak Pedas [sambal, hot chilies], Masak Assam [tamarind], Masak Merah [tomato sauce], Masak Hitam [dark-sweet soy sauce] and Masak Assam Pedas [tamarind & sambal, hot chilies]. These basic styles of cooking can be applied to a variety of food, from meats, poultry and vegetables to all kinds of seafood and fish. Popular dishes are Ayam Masak Merah; chicken cooked in a spicy tomato sauce, goes great with nasi tomato [tomato rice]. Udang Masak Pedas; prawns cooked in a hot chili sauce, Ikan Masak Assam Pedas; fish cooked with tamarind and sambal or hot chilies and Nangka Masak Lemak; young jackfruit cooked in coconut milk. There are innumerable renowned and distinguished Malay dishes; many of which can only be had at home. The best way to experience typical Malay food is to be invited for makan [meaning 'to eat', in Malay] in a Malay home. There are also regional dishes which are specialties of different parts of the country. One of the most celebrated Malaysian dish worldwide is Beef Rendang; a must-have for celebrations and special occasions! Soup is not necessarily prevalent in Malay cuisine; however there is a soup or stew that is particularly popular Sup Kambing [mutton soup], made of mutton bones, shanks or ribs slow simmered with aromatic herbs and spices. Pork however is forbidden in Malay cooking as it is against religious beliefs to consume pork. Another famous Malay classic is the 'meat-on-a-stick' Satay. Chicken, beef or mutton satays are cooked over hot charcoals and served with fresh cucumber, onion and a spicy peanut dipping sauce. The spicy peanut dipping sauce is what makes satay special, and great for dipping ketupat, a Malay rice cake.

Many Malay restaurants and stalls serve what is called Nasi Padang; the name originated from Padang, a district in West Sumatra. It is not one particular dish but rather a meal of rice served with any number of meat, fish, poultry and vegetable dishes. The rice can be plain [nasi kosong] or lightly flavored such as nasi kunyit [turmeric rice]; rice spiced with turmeric, or nasi minyak [ghee rice]; rice cooked with ghee [clarified butter]. A wide array of dishes are available for you to choose to eat with your choice of rice; from highly spiced and tongue-burning hot dishes, to mild, aromatically spiced stews and sauced dishes, and delicious deep-fried foods. Some of the popular dishes are Sambal Udang or Sambal Sotong; prawns or squid in a spicy chili belacan sauce. Ayam Panggang; grilled chicken Malay-style, Otak Otak [fish mousse]; a mildly spiced coconut milk fish mousse steamed or grilled in banana leaves. Other popular dishes are Sambal Tahu Goreng; deep-fried tofu topped with sambal sauce, Daging Masak Kicap; beef cooked in a dark-sweet soy sauce and Ayam Kampung Masak Lemak Cili Padi; free-range [village] chicken cooked in santan [coconut milk] and cili padi [Thai bird chilies]. The all-time everyday favorites and quick-fix's are Nasi Goreng [fried rice] and Mee Goreng [fried noodles] cooked Malay style. Another everyday favorite is a delicious, satisfying noodle dish called Laksa; fresh rice noodles, garnished with fresh cucumbers, onions, lettuce and served in a savory and tangy fish soup or gravy.

Nasi Kerabu or Nasi Ulam, is a regional specialty from the state of Kelantan on the east coast of Malaysia. Traditionally, the rice is tinted bright blue from petals of flowers called bunga telang [clitoria in English]. For a family size serving of rice, hundreds of these petals have to be sun-dried and boiled in water. There are several varieties of local herbs; daun kentut, daun kudu, cekur, seven types of daun larak and kucing seduduk, which is used to tint the rice in different colors; red, black or blue. The most used variety for Nasi Kerabu is the 'blue color' variety of petals. This naturally tinted 'blue rice' is served with Ulam. Ulam is combination of fresh aromatic herbs; local mint, basil, lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, turmeric leaves and raw vegetables; bean sprouts, long green beans, shallots, cucumber, are combined together with strong flavored ingredients such as salted fish, dried prawns, fish crackers, kerisik [fried grated coconut] and other savory garnishing.

One of the most unique Malay culinary creation is Roti Jala ['net' bread] which is a sort of crepe or thin pancake. It is made from a crepe-like batter of plain flour, eggs, butter and coconut milk with a dash of turmeric for coloring. A special mould or cup with small holes is used to make a 'lacy' crepe, cooked briefly over a hot greased griddle. Roti Jala is an ideal accompaniment to dishes with lots of rich curry sauces or gravy, and is usually served during special occasions. Desserts are often served after a meal or an an afternoon snack; many are home-made although most are easily available from local hawker stalls and restaurants especially during Ramadan, the religious fasting period. Malay desserts are quite exceptional, using ingredients such as Santan [coconut milk], fresh grated coconut, palm sugar and a unique plant leave called pandan or pandanus [screwpine]. This locally grown plant leave is used often in dessert making. It lends essence rather than a taste, much like the ubiquitous vanilla bean. During the Malay New Year [Hari Raya or Eid], the variety of cakes and dessert are endless; many are unique creations made by home chefs, not found anywhere in the culinary circle of the dessert world!

: Coconut-flavored Rice Meal - is rice cooked in coconut milk made aromatic with pandan leaves [screwpine leaves]. It is typically served with Sambal Ikan Bilis - fried dried anchovies cooked in a dry sambal sauce, and garnished with cucumber slices, hard boiled egg and roasted peanuts. Traditionally packaged in a banana leaf, it is usually eaten as hearty breakfast fare.

BBQ Sticks - This famous meat-on-a-stick appears on menus from New York to Amsterdam. The secret of tender, succulent satay is, of course, in the rich, spicy-sweet marinade. The marinated meat; chicken or beef, are skewered onto bamboo sticks and grilled over hot charcoals. Some satay stalls also serve venison and rabbit satay. A fresh salad of cucumbers & onions are served together with a spicy-sweet peanut sauce for dipping. Ketupat, a Malay rice cake similar to Lontong, is also an accompaniment to satay, great for dipping in satay sauce. Dee'lish!!

: Malay Spiced Coconut Beef - This hot, dry spiced dish of tenderly simmered meat offers the typical Malaysian taste of coconut, balanced with robust, tangy spices. Rendang is a must-have on special occasions such as weddings, ideally served with nasi kunyit [turmeric rice]. During Ramadan & Eid, the Malay New Year, Rendang is sure to take center stage on bountiful tables of feast in homes everywhere. During this festive season, a special rice cake called Lemang is made to eat with Rendang. Lemang is made from glutinous rice and santan [coconut milk], carefully packed into bamboo poles lined with banana leaves and cooked in the traditionally way over low open fires.

: Spicy Prawns - whole prawns or shrimp are cooked in a classic Malay sauce; a spicy robust sauce made with chilies, shallots, garlic, stewed tomatoes, tamarind paste and belacan [also spelt belachan or blacan], a dried shrimp paste paste. Sambal Udang is the perfect accompaniment to the country's un-official national dish - Nasi Lemak.

: Red-Cooked Chicken - is similar to the Italian famous dish Chicken Cacciatore except for it spicy hotness. Pieces of chicken are first pan-fried to a golden brown then slowly simmered in a spicy tomato sauce. This popular Malay dish is especially scrumptious with nasi tomato [tomato rice].

: Noodles in Tangy Fish Soup - Thick rice noodles are served in a tangy fish soup/gravy. Not at all fishy, the soupy gravy is made with mackerel and lots of aromatic herbs. Fresh garnishing of shredded cucumber, lettuce, pineapple, onion and fragrant mint leaves finishes the dish. In general the term Laksa refers to Malay style laksa, sometimes called Malay Laksa. There are slight variations in different parts of the country. The key ingredient is tamarind, used as a souring agent, giving it a tart tangy taste. This version of laksa from the 'hawker food capital' - Penang, is especially famous and well known as Penang Laksa or Penang Assam Laksa.

: Indonesian style Noodles - is a popular Malay noodle dish influenced by the Indonesian island of Java. The soupy gravy is made from fresh prawns and ladled over yellow egg noodles [chow mein]. Slices of potato, tofu [soy bean cake], egg, vegetables and shrimp garnishes the dish.

: 'Net' Bread or Crepe - is a net-like or lacy type of crepe made from a flour batter. A special cup or mould with small holes, is used to form a lacy crepe cooked on a hot griddle. Roti Jala, an alternative to rice, is an ideal accompaniment to curries such as Malaysian Chicken Curry, Mutton Kurma, Chicken Kapitan, Lamb Cashew Korma [also spelt Korma].

: BBQ Fish - or Ikan Panggang is a general term meaning grilled or barbecued fish. A popular local fish for grilling is Ikan Kembong [chubb mackerel, also called Indian mackerel]. The fish, kept whole is marinated in spices, coconut milk, and sometimes stuffed with sambal, then wrapped in fresh banana leaves and grilled over hot charcoals.

: BBQ Stingray or Skate Wings - A popular method of cooking stingray or skate wings is by barbequing. The wings are marinated in spices then wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over hot charcoals. A spicy sambal sauce with fresh shallots is served with it.

: Spicy Squid - fresh squid [calamari] are cooked in a classic Malay sauce; a spicy robust sauce made with chilies, shallots, garlic, stewed tomatoes, tamarind paste and belacan [also spelt belachan or blacan], a dried shrimp paste. Sambal Sotong is also a popular accompaniment to the country's un-official national dish - Nasi Lemak.

: 'Chili-ed' Eggs - an 'egg-cellent' recipe for those days when all you've left in the fridge are eggs.. Hard-boil those eggs, 'chili' them up with sambal, kick it up a notch with a touch of belacan; serve with steamed rice and you've got yourself a meal!

: Malay Fish Mousse - fresh fish fillets are blended with light spices, coconut milk, kaffir lime leaves and other aromatic herbs, into a sort of fish mousse. The fish mousse is wrapped in banana leaves and steamed or grilled. It makes an exotic appetizer or cocktail party bite!

: Mutton Soup - mutton bones, shanks or ribs are slow simmered with aromatic herbs and spices. Garnished with fried shallots and fresh cilantro, it is a hearty meal served with steamed rice. This flavorful soup - surprisingly earthy, satisfyingly meaty, elegant and subtle - will forever change the way you view soup. Oxtails are perfect in this recipe to make Sup Ekor, also called Sup Buntut [Oxtail Soup].

: Coconut Vegetable Stew - Sayur Lodeh means a variety of vegetables in coconut gravy. Vegetables such as cabbage, carrots, green beans and cauliflower, are stewed in a lightly spiced coconut broth. For a complete and hearty meal, the vegetable stew is served with a Malay rice cake called nasi impit more familiarly known as Lontong. A great vegetarian dish!

: Indian Pastry Pancake - Indian in origin, this rich and flaky pastry pancake has now come to be known as a favorite Malaysian 'appetizer' in Malaysian eateries all over the globe. Roti Canai [also called Roti Prata] is served with a side of curry for dipping, usually a Malaysian Chicken Curry.

: or Kari Ayam in Malay, is a typical chicken curry cooked in almost all Malaysian homes. This basic recipe uses a Made in Malaysia Meat Curry Powder. It has just the right blend of spices for an authentic 'Malaysian-tasting' curry! Some ingredients may vary - Malay homes might add serai [lemongrass], lengkuas [galangal], kunyit [fresh turmeric root] or assam jawa [tamarind].

: is a typical fish curry cooked in almost all Malaysian homes. This basic recipe uses a Made in Malaysia Fish Curry Powder. It has just the right blend of spices for an authentic 'Malaysian-tasting' fish curry! Some ingredients vary - Malay homes might cook with lengkuas [galangal], assam gelugor [tamarind skins], cili padi [Thai Bird chilies], serai [lemongrass], assam jawa [tamarind] and belacan [also spelt belachan or blacan] a dried shrimp paste.

: Coconut Poppers - small round balls made from glutinous rice flour with pandan [screwpine] leaves essence, filled with palm sugar and rolled in fresh grated coconut. A delight to eat as it pops in your mouth with a sweet sensation of oozing palm syrup!

: Steamed Coconut Pudding - this 2 layered pudding made of rice flour, sago flour and coconut milk is cooked by steaming. Pandan [screwpine] leaves lends essence and the green color to one layer. A white coconut layer goes on top. A not too sweet and light dessert!

: Glutinous Rice with Coconut Topping - a kind of 'dry' rice pudding made from glutinous rice & coconut milk. It is cooked by steaming. The dessert rice is topped with fresh grated coconut sweetened with palm sugar. It is traditionally wrapped in banana leaves folded into a pyramid shape.

: Black Rice Pudding - a rice pudding made from black glutinous rice sweetened with brown palm sugar. A surrey of creamy coconut milk is swirled over the rice pudding before it is served.



Projek pembinaan Masjid Kristal melibatkan 34 kontraktor tempatan sementara Perbadanan Memajukan Iktisad Negeri Terengganu bertanggungjawab memantau projek tersebut. Bahan asas adalah bahan tempatan dan kira-kira 65% adalah pakar tempatan dan selebihnya adalah pakar pertukangan luar Negara.

Fasa pembinaan :

Fasa 1 adalah fasa pembinaan Masjid Kristal dan perumahan khas untuk iman dan bilal
Fasa 2 adalah fasa pembinaan monument masjid, sebagai mercu tanda islam
Fasa 3 adalah fasa pembinaan taman terbuka, wakaf, laluan untuk aktiviti bersenam,
astaka dan kawasan memancing.
Fasa 4 adalah fasa pembinaan perani, teropong dan pusat komersial
Fasa 5 adalah pembinaan pellet dan jalan masuk


Terdapat 21 replika masjid termasuk tugu dan monument dibina pada nisbah skala 1.8 berbanding saiz asal. Antara 21 replika tersebut adalah:

v Masjid Abu Nasr Pasra
v Masjid An-Nabawi
v Masjidil Haram
v Masjid Sultan Omar Syarif
v Masjid Xian
v Taj Mahal
v Masjid Kuddus Mirna
v Masjid Sheikh Luffalla
v Masjid Besar Samarra
v Masjid Negara
v Masjid Mohamed Ali
v Masjid Besar Aqadez
v Masjid Badshahi
v Kubah As Sakha
v Masjid Kul Sharif Tafarstan
v Masjid Aal Hambra
v Masjid Alepo Citadel
v Masjid Pusat Petani
v Masjid Qairawan
v Tugu Kompleks Suleyman
v Menara Kalyan

Pada zaman klasik Yunani, Muzium turut dikenali sebagai 'A place sacred to the Muse specifically, the great institution fot literature and scientific studies built and equipped by ptolomy I at Alexandria, which was virtually a university of Hellesnistic world' Muzium pertama dipercayai telah ditubuhkan di Iskandariah, Mesir pada abad ke 3 sebelum Masehi. Sejak itu institusi mula mendapat perhatian ramai terutama daripada cendekiawan dan para ilmuan berlumba-lumba memberikan definisi muzium yang paling sesuai. Geo Brown Goode (1895) mendefinisikan muzium sebagai 'An institution for the preservation of those objects which best illustrate the phenomena of nature and the work of man, and utilization of these to increase knowledge and for the culture and the enlightenment of the people' Dalam pada itu terdapat beberapa definisi berbentuk sementara atau masih kabur yang diutarakan. Majlis Muzium Antarabangsa ( ICOM ), Kesatuan Muzium Kanada ( CMN ) dan Kesatuan Muzium America (AAM) mendefinisikan muzium berlandaskan kepada fungsi dan pengurusannya serta bidang-bidang yang berkaitan dengan institusi tersebut. ICOM pada Mesyuarat Agongnya 1974 menggariskan definisi Muzium sebagai 'Institusi bersifat tetap, tidak mencari keuntungan, memberi khidmat kepada masyarakat dan perkembangannya, terbuka kepada umum, memperolehi, merawat, menghubungkan dan mempamerkan untuk tujuan pembelajaran, pendidikan dan hiburan, bukti-bukti tinggalan manusia dan persekitarannya. Tindak balas daripada definisi ini, beberapa aktiviti dan bidang dikaitkan sama sebagai sokongan. Antaranya Muzium ditakrifkan juga sebagai institusi yang terlibat dengan :- i. Pemuliharaan, pameran dan Pusat Arkib ii. Pemuliharaan dan pengekalan alam semulajadi iii. Arkeologi, Ethnologi, Monumen dan Tapak Tanah bersejarah iv. Pameran benda hidup seperti Taman Botani, Zoologi,Akuarium dan sebagainya. v. Pusat Sains dan Planetarium
Berdasarkan kepada definisi tersebut, tidak dapat dinafikan bahawa Muzium memainkan peranan penting dalam bidang pendidikan, kebudayaan dan pembangunan ekonomi bagi setiap negara dan masyarakat. Malah Muzium turut membentuk dan mengambil bahagian yang utama membangunkan masyarakat dan negara melalui peranannya yang berbagai (Multifunctional role). Sehubungan itu, pada 1989 Kesatuan Muzium Great Britain ( MAGB ) telah mendefinisikan Muzium dalam bentuk yang lebih mudah untuk difahami. Institusi Muzium ditakrifkan sebagai 'An institution which collects, documents, preserves, exhibits and interprets material evidence and associated information for public benefit'. Di Malaysia, Muzium pada peringkat awalnya dikenali sebagai 'Sekolah Gambar' kerana selain artifek arkeologi, gambar-gambar bersejarah turut dipamerkan dengan banyaknya di dalam bangunan Muzium. Bagaimanapun peredaran masa dan pertambahan pengalaman serta pengetahuan golongan tertentu terutama yang ada kaitan langsung dengan pengurusan dan aktiviti Muzium telah berjaya membentuk identiti baru Muzium. Hal ini turut mengubah pandangan orang ramai terhadap institusi tersebut. Biarpun terdapat berbagai bentuk tanggapan dan definisi yang berbeza terhadap institusi Muzium, namun begitu adalah tepat jika Muzium itu diterangkan melalui aktiviti serta kemampuan yang ditunjukkan oleh sesebuah Muzium itu. Kejayaan sesebuah Muzium menangani segala permasalahan yang ada dalam usaha mencapai objektif penubuhannya adalah bergantung sepenuhnya kepada keupayaan dan rasa tanggungjawab kakitangannya. Oleh yang demikian sesebuah Muzium itu adalah sesuai didefinisi berdasarkan kemampuan serta kejayaan yang ditunjukkan melalui aktiviti-aktiviti yang dijalankan dengan bersandar kepada fungsi dan garis objektifnya.
Kompleks Muzium Negeri Terengganu yang tersegam indah di Jalan Losong merangkumi empat blok utama. Kompleks muzium yang terbesar di Asia tenggara ini terletak dalam taman berlandskap indah dengan air terjun kecil dan kolam-kolam ika koi. Ia memaparkan sejarah agama, raja, budaya dan ekonomi negeri.

Muzium Terengganu telah dirasmikan pada 20 April 1996 bersamaan 2 Zulhijjah 1416 oleh Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah, Sultan Terengganu. Meliputi kawasan seluas 27 hektar, kompleks ini mempunyai keluasan lantai keseluruhan berjumlah 75,075 meter persegi. Terdiri dari 4 blok bangunan Muzium Utama, kompleks ini juga mempunyai Muzium Maritim, 5 buah rumah tradisional serta kawasan lanskap. Antara galeri yang terdapat di bangunan utama ialah Galeri Islam dan GaleriTekstil

Saksikan pelbagai artifek arkeologi yang menggambarkan tamadun purba di Terengganu. Pertembungan dua budaya melalui seramik China yang terkenal dengan karya seninya.Tidak kurang juga numismatik yang pastinya menarik perhatian anda.Menghayati peristiwa-peristiwa bersejarah yang pernah berlaku di Terengganu serta mengenali tokoh-tokoh sasterawan dan sejarawan di samping menteladani serta menghargai segala jasa-jasa dan bakti yang telah dicurahkan oleh mereka dalam membawa perubahan besar kepada negeri Terengganu,bumi bertuah ini.


Malaysia's two oldest cities — Georgetown and Malacca — have finally been listed as World Heritage Sites after 7 years of campaigning at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco), which gave the status on the 7th July 2008

Its Paris-based World Heritage Council met in Quebec, Canada and confirmed the listings which will see historical and cultural properties in both cities to be listed on the Unesco World Heritage List.
Penang Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng welcomed the announcement, telling The Malaysian Insider: "This is great news for Georgetown. We have to maintain our heritage and history and the state government intends to just that."
Former Chief Minister Tan Sri Dr Koh Tsu Koon said the success in the bid is a boost to multiculturalism and tourism for Malaysia.
In Georgetown, the core areas encompass the historical sites of Georgetown, including the Lebuh Acheh historical enclave and sites such as the Lebuh Acheh Malay Mosque, Jalan Mesjid Kapitan Kling Mosque, the Goddess of Mercy Temple, Sri Mariamman Temple, Khoo Kongsi, St George's Church, Assumption Church, St Xavier's Institution, Convent Light Street, Little India, the museum and court building, the commercial area of Beach Street, Fort Cornwallis, Esplanade, City Hall, the clan jetties and the port areas.
In Malacca, which was founded in the 1400s, historical sites near the St Paul's Hill, the 17th-century Dutch Stadhuys buildings, Jonker Street with its Dutch-era buildings, Jalan Tukang Besi, Kampung Morten and Malacca River have been recognised as part of the World Heritage Site.

Georgetown , Tanjung
Motto:”Leading, We serve”

George Town is the capital city of the state of Penang in Malaysia. Named after Britain's King George III, the city is located on the north-east corner of Penang Island and has about 220,000 inhabitants, or about 400,000 including the suburbs.
George Town was founded in 1786 by Captain Francis Light, a trader for the British East India Company, as base for the company in the Malay States. He obtained the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah and built Fort Cornwallis on the north-eastern corner of the island. The fort became the nexus of a growing trading post and the island's population reached 12,000 by 1804.

George Town is informally known simply as Tanjung ("The Cape") in Malay and 喬治市 (Qiáozhì Shì) in Chinese. It was voted as one of the best cities in Asia by Asiaweek, ranked 6th in 1998 and 9th in 2000. More recently in 2007, it was ranked as the 10th most liveable city in Asia according to an international survey involving 254 cities worldwide by Employment Conditions Abroad Limited (ECA International). Back in 2002, it was placed 12th. A city is judged based on its weather, air quality, infrastructure, health services, housing, security and politics.

Due to strict rent controls, George Town retains many colonial-era shophouses to this day and is often considered an architectural gem. Most of George Town's population is of Chinese origin.

Since the repeal of the rent controls in 2000, many pre-war buildings have given way to new high rises. Heritage guidelines are still in its infancy and much needs to be done to conserve such treasures for the benefit of future generations.

George Town was built on swampy land that had to be cleared of vegetation, levelled and filled. The original commercial town was laid out between Light Street, Beach Street (then running close to the seashore), Malabar Street (subsequently called Chulia Street) and Pitt Street (now called Masjid Kapitan Keling Street).
The warehouses and godowns extended from Beach Street to the sea. By the 1880’s, there were ghauts leading from Beach Street to the wharf and jetties as Beach Street receded inland due to land reclamation. A new waterfront was created at Weld Quay, where commercial buildings sprang up.
The historic commercial centre was segmented into the banking and trading areas related to port activities which included shipping companies, the import and export trade, and the wholesalers who dominate the southern section of Beach Street until now. It has been listed as a World Heritage site since July 2008.

Beach street, Georgetown , Penang

The hub of George Town’s waterfront commercial and financial district

At the turn of the 19th century, the northern section of Beach Street and the adjacent Bishop Street were the ‘high street’ where the ‘modern’ European emporium and stores selling imported merchandise were situated.

Among the early foreign companies that located their offices on Beach Street were the Netherlands Trading Society, the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), the Chartered Bank, Boustead & Co., Guthne & Co., Caldbeck & Macgregor, Behn Meyer, Sandilands & Buttery, G.H. Slot and the stores of Pritchard & Co., Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co., and others. Among the local businesses that were established here during this period were H.M. Nooradin, Tiang Lee & Co., Guan Lee Hin Steamship, Tye Sin Tat, Pinang Sales Room, Koe Guan and others. Penang’s first petroleum lamps were installed on this section of Beach Street by Huttenbach & Co..

Jewish Cemetery, Jalan Zainah Abidin

Grave of Thomas Leonowens (Anna and the King)
At Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah(formerly Northam Road)

Fort Cornwallis, the first British Settlement in Penang

On 2 August 2006, the federal government announced a plan to build a monorail urban transit system connecting George Town to Tanjung Tokong in the north and Bayan Lepas in the south. However, due to the defeat in Penang of the Barisan Nasional coalition after the 2008 General Election, the proposed development project was called-off after the mid-term review of the Ninth Malaysia Plan which was tabled in Parliament on June 26, 2008.


Malacca (Malay: Melaka, dubbed as The Historical State and also Negeri Bersejarah amongst locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The state's capital is Malacca Town.

Although Malacca was once one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the state has no Sultan today. Instead, the head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor.

Canals in Malacca

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-sq. km. or 1.3 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts, that is Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca is located on the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commanding a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore respectively) and is linked with excellent roads and highways. Malacca is yet to have its own train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. It has a domestic airport terminal located in Batu Berendam.

The offshore Pulau Besar (Malacca), Pulau Upeh and Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca

Sultanate of Malacca

The precise origins of Malacca are disputed. It appears that Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembang who fled Sumatra following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. Parameswara converted to Islam in 1414 and changed his name to 'Raja Iskandar Shah'.

Panorama of MalaccaIn collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China ("Chinese Hill") area, which had among the best Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424, and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamese. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was at that time a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important outpost for Zheng He's spectacular exploration fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.

European colonization

1854 Map of British Territory of Malacca

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died two years later.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1795 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark better known as Red Building or Stadhuys.
Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.

The Malays who are the original settlers of Malacca since 1400, form the largest community. The Malaccan Malays are rich in culture from their daily life to the building arts. The famous Malacca Steps or Tangga Melaka are common in front of many Malay houses in Malacca.

Every year Malays here celebrate the Muslim festival Eid ul-Fitr that marks the end of Ramadan the city will every year in full mood of celebration during the Ramadan and Shawwal months. They will serve ketupat and lemang as the main dish. Ketupat is a type of dumpling from Malaysia is made from rice that has been wrapped in a woven coconut leaf pouch which is then boiled.

Stadthuys square

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Melaka Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the traditional Malay dishes like ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh tiny shrimp of a species known as geragau in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and buried for several months. The fermented shrimp are then dug up, fried and hard-pressed into cakes.Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chilli peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried. The aroma from the frying mixture can be unapalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.

Maritine museum

There is also Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itek Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce which is usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.

Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the ancient traditions passed down since the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

Ruins of A Formosa

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's already rich cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
Stadhuys Building: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is famous for its antique goods. It is also famous for its carnival-like atmosphere during weekend nights.
Portuguese Square Perhaps the right phrase to infer strong affinity to Portugal would be 'Mini Lisbon'. Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
Cheng Hoon Teng: Oldest Chinese temple in Malaysia.
In order to attract more tourists to Malacca, the State government has built a number of museums to house its rich cultural heritage.



Is a Malay word referring to the stiff oval headgear worn over the brow by muslim males only

Haja Mohidin was twelve years old when he first learned to make a “songkok”. He has been making making them now for more than 42 years!

He learned the skill from his father who has been working at the same premises for 40 years (1933-1973)
This shop was the first of such shops selling handmade songkok and managed to draw regular clients from all over Malaysia.
Haja Mohidin draws about 20 orders a day and can complete a songkok within an hour!

Many uniformed organizations like the police , the army and the cadets have been known to place bulk orders in colours of brown, purple and green.

The songkok is the headgear that completes a traditional Malay costume. It is usually worn by muslim men during prayers or other religious ceremonies.
Muslim headgear like the Kopiah”, the “tarbus”, and the “songkok”, were brought by traders and migrants from various muslim countries.

Haja Mohidin specializes in making the songkok which is the most commonly worn headgear. Malaysian songkok usually sport a plain black or blue velvet finish. Gold and silver trimmings are reserved for royalty.
Haja’s design is adopted from Achen probably to cater for the larger Acehnese settlers and haj pilgrims in Penang at the time.

The shop was actually built before independence in 1957 with a limited working space measuring 6 feet by 6 feet by 12 feet, Haja Mohidin still manages to house all his tools and machines although it does get a little hot.
The shop, set in an alcove next to the Nagore shrine, is especially meaningful to Haja Mohidin as it is his father’s trading legacy.Just beside him, you will find his uncle who also makes songkoks!

How is songkok made?